Q. I was walking in my vegetable garden the other day and noticed that some of my squash blossoms are falling off. What is going on? Is this an insect problem? What should I do?
A. I have gotten several calls recently similar to yours, so don’t feel alone. There are several different issues that may result in blossom drop, but none of them are serious. In fact, your plants may just grow right out of their problem.
Most squash (and cucumbers, melons, and pumpkins for that matter) have separate male and female flowers on the same plant (pictures show female flower on left and male on right - photo's courtesy Chris Becker, Alabama Cooperative Extension System). So, it is important to know which flowers are dropping – male or female. In the center of the female flower, you will find several bumpy structures surrounding a central opening. These structures make up the stigma. Also, female blossoms have what appears to be a tiny squash fruit just below the flower. Male flowers grow on a long narrow stem and contain only the stamens. Each stamen grows on a long stalk and has anthers, filled with sticky pollen. The anthers look a lot like the applicators that are used to apply eye shadow. (My analogy is probably not the best, but hopefully, this gives you a good mental picture).
Now, that we have finished the brief plant biology lesson, let’s move on to your problem. If the earliest blooms are the ones that fall off, don’t worry. Often, the male squash flowers will bloom and wither before the female flowers even appear. In this particular instance, patience is the recommendation. Eventually, your plants will produce both male and female flowers, and fruit set should soon follow.
Notice that I ended my previous sentence with "should" and not "will". If both flower sexes are present and fruit set does not occur, you have a pollination issue. Squash pollen is a very sticky substance, so it cannot be transferred via wind, like some of our other vegetable varieties. We depend on insect pollinators, primarily bees, to successfully pollinate our squash plants. Reduced or nonexistent bee populations or activity in your garden directly affect your squash harvest, or lack thereof. Cloudy, rainy days reduce and sometimes prevent insect flight.
So, is home-grown squash off of your summertime menu if no bees are around? Absolutely not – it will just require a little extra effort on your part. In the absence of bees, squash flowers can be hand-pollinated. The first step is to find a male flower. Cut it off where the flower stem meets the main stem of the plant. Next, all of the petals should be removed, carefully, from the flower, leaving you with a stem and exposed anther. Now, locate a female flower and use your stem and anther to transfer the pollen to the stigma, located in the center of the female flower. Gently rub the anther over the stigma several times, and then move on to the next female flower. Each anther can be used to pollinate approximately five flowers. Instead of using the anther, you can also use an artist’s paint brush or cotton swab to transfer the pollen to the female flower.
No matter the method of pollen transfer, timing is important. Flowers open early in the morning and are only receptive for one day. Be sure to use freshly opened flowers to ensure your hand-pollination success! Happy Gardening!
Written by Bethany A. O’Rear of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). She is housed at the C. Beaty Hanna Horticultural and Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.
Question: I have a delightful neighbor who has lived in this area all her life; she regales me with stories about old landscapes, old homes, and old plants. One plant in particular she describes with affection and passion is called a “ditch lily”. I’ve done a little reading regarding this lily since my plan was to find and install them in my yard. Is this a good idea? Am I asking for trouble by introducing this plant? Is it considered a delight or a demon?
Answer: Whether your “delightful” neighbor explained or not, the “ditch lily”, also called day lily, tiger liiy, roadside lily, and a few other names, is one of a group that fell out of favor with more “discerning” gardeners some years back. Because of their low maintenance, friendly nature, and ability to spread from one spot to another sans human intervention, some circles have bestowed on them “invasive species” status.
But before you abandon the idea of adding them to your yard, let’s take a closer look at Hemerocallis, the lily’s “proper” or botanical name.
Sometimes considered “passalong” or “friendship plants’, these colorful harbingers of summer originally hailed from Asia, where they were a staple of Chinese diets for many years. Arriving in the New World with our first colonists, daylilies quickly spread across North America, as determined as our ancestors to stake a claim and establish new territory.
Even then we knew this was not a true lily; true lilies grow from bulbs, the daylily from tuberous roots. But, from its early days, daylilies were known for those characteristics that made it popular in its native environment.
To “tough as nails”, add tenacious. Daylilies in landscapes offer a range of colors, sizes, and periods of bloom. As example, some designers use daylilies to fill gaps in the landscape, border a sidewalk, or to hide unattractive items such as air conditioning units. Requiring minimal maintenance once established, they tolerate a range of soil and temperature conditions although they look their best in full to filtered sun and with their “feet” in soil that drains well.
Massed on banks and areas too steep or hard to mow, daylilies also add ‘bling’ to foundation plantings; some color combinations can be down-right eye-popping!
In addition to Hemerocallis fulva, the “common” ditch lily, there is a bewildering list of lily possibilities, including night-blooming and a lemon-scented species. Colors, as mentioned previously, come in shades of white, yellow, pink, purple, and striking combinations of any and all. Cultivars also include a range of bloom times, so though “day” lily indicates just that – a flower that blooms for a day – by combining early, mid, and late blooming types, daylilies can be enjoyed the entire summer.
Mix color options, bloom time, height variations, and flower shapes to understand how there are thousands of named cultivars around today. Choose from one or more categories to delve even deeper into the daylily of ditches and devotees, since a few cultivars have price tags equal to the down payment on a new car!
Is this plant a delight or a demon? Depends on who you ask, but as suggested by one expert, ‘if you have a patch of bad yard that won’t grow anything, try daylilies. Chances are they will do the job and look good in the process’.
written by Sallie Lee of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). She is housed at the C. Beaty Hanna Horticultural and Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.
When we say "grasses" to gardeners, most think of something you have to mow. But many ornamental grasses are now becoming popular for several reasons.
Grasses can provide height, color, contrast, wildlife shelter, spiky accents, feathery waves, and low-growing clumps to gardens and landscapes. They can be grown in beds or in pots. They're low maintenance and tough. Many grasses retain their shape and foliage structure through the winter, giving added texture to the garden.
Cultivation of grasses is as old as gardening itself. The grass family, Gramineae, produces the world's cereal crops, which are essential to both human and animal food sources. Each region of the world has its own native grasses, but it is only recently that garden cultivars have been introduced. No matter what kind of conditions exist on a site, there is an ornamental grass that is suitable.
As grasses have increased in popularity, more nurseries and garden centers are stocking them. If you can't find the grasses you are looking for there, then mail order is another option.
If buying locally this spring or summer, remember to check on the general health of the plant. Look for a grass that has colorful foliage and is not too dense, which indicates that the plant has already become pot-bound and might be difficult to establish if planted.
Check the root system if possible. It should hold the soil and be visibly healthy without being overcrowded. Choose a plant that has moist soil. Over-watered or dry soil puts stress on the plant. Even though many grasses tolerate such stress, they won't be in the best of health and may be more susceptible to pests as a result.
When purchasing grasses, keep in mind the ultimate height and spread of the plant, and whether it is suitable for the site. The information panel for each grass should indicate this information. If not, ask someone who works at the nursery or garden center.
The best time for planting grasses is in the spring or fall. But regardless of when you decide to plant, make sure that the grass is well watered beforehand. When planted in a suitable site, the grass simply requires a little fertilizer initially to give it a boost, an application of mulch, and watering until it is established.
Many grasses are suitable for growing in pots. This is usually the best option when dealing with a root-invasive grass such as Ribbon Grass (Phalaris). And it is the way to grow tender grasses for your area, such as the purple-leaved Foxtail Grass (Pennisetum).
Potted grasses can be grown as single specimens or with other plants in larger containers, such as with flowering annuals around the edge. Grouping several potted plants together can form a versatile display in smaller spaces.
There are many sizes and shapes of containers. Whatever the shape of the pot you choose, make sure it is large enough to contain the grass and allow for more growth. Pot-bound grasses require frequent watering, as well as annual division and repotting.
For more gardening information, call 1-877-252 – GROW (4769) to reach the Master Gardener Helpline. Dr. Leonard Perry, Extension Professor, University of Vermont was used as a resource for this article.
What not to plant
There are very few things that make me angry. While most folks consider me laid back and of a relaxed nature, there are a few things that can make my blood boil. These can include social injustices, potholes on the interstate highway, and high on the list- thugs… specifically garden thugs. You may be asking “What is a garden thug?”. I consider a garden thug a plant that just can’t behave in the garden. These are plants that will spread wildly or those that tend explode when the wind blows; generally plants that should be avoided. So, in honor of the coming of spring and for the love of the natural environment I will now give you my top 5 list of garden thugs.
#5- Kudzu- The plant that ate the South
When many people hear the word “invasive”, kudzu is the plant that comes to mind. First planted by the state department as a means of controlling erosion, this plant has been considered public enemy number one on plant lists for a while. Why do I put it at number 5 and not number one? First, most anyone with enough sense to walk around would think twice about planting kudzu. Second, I hope that there isn’t to garden center in this great land that would put this plant out for sale, unlike all of the other of the plants on this list.
#4- Chinese Tallow tree (aka “popcorn tree”)
Beloved for its fall color, this tree has been widely planted in landscapes across our great state for decades. Hailing from East Asia, this tree has quickly become a bane to southern ecosystems. The seeds are readily transported by birds and the wind and can seemingly grow wherever the seed lands. Not only is this tree a fast grower, but it also surrounds itself with a circle of toxicity. The sap of the plant is toxic, as are the leaves, making the plant successful in most any environment without the threat of predation. Options in lieu of the Chinese tallow tree include Ginkgo, crape myrtle and service berry.
#3 Japanese Wisteria
This is one of several wildly popular plants that have become incredibly invasive in the southeastern United States. Having been long favored for climbing on walls and over trellises in old fashion gardens, the plant quickly became a nuisance in natural areas. By forming a dense mat of vines, girdling and over-topping trees, this plant can easily become a dominate species if left unattended. While I can understand the potential interest in this plant with its large raceme of purple flowers and unusual seed pods, this is one that can get out of hand quickly. Confederate jasmine or the climbing rose known as ‘lady banks’ are two plants that could easy be used in place of this monster.
#2 Bradford Pear- A bad tree with beautiful blooms
I have a feeling that I am about to step on the toes of some people in this area. So, to protect myself, I understand; these are beautiful trees that bloom a pure white in the spring and have a great form and brilliant fall color. Now for the bad side- this tree is dangerous in more ways than one. First, the ‘Bradford’ was a selection from a tree known as the callery pear (Pyrus calleryana), a non edible pear native to China and Vietnam. Selected for its heavy bloom and upright nature, the ‘Bradford’ selection started out as a good garden citizen. It was widely popular throughout the United States (in a 2006 tree census of the city, the New York Parks Division counted 63,000 in New York City alone!) and continues to be sold at garden centers around the country.
Since its arrival, ‘Bradford’, which at one point was considered a sterile cultivar, has become widely invasive. Driving by abandoned city lots or along natural roadsides in the spring will show just how bad this plant really is. Aside from spreading to open lots and fence lines, this plant is indeed a danger in the landscape. Take a look around this spring after a thunderstorm and count how many of these trees are split down the middle. This weakness is due to that desirable upright nature which leads to what arborists refer to as “poor crotch angles”. These angles lead to included bark and cause pressure to build in the “v” of the branches. One good wind storm and CRACK!! There goes a major branch of the tree, crushing anything and everything beneath it. The second “danger” comes, not from the ‘Bradford’ selection, but rather with the reversion of the plant to the callery pear. The callery pear has some intense thorns- thorns that can puncture tractor tires and shoes or boots alike. Some options for replacement plants are fruiting pears, dogwoods, ornamental cherries and many others.
#1 Chinese Privet- botanical enemy number one
This plant is the one that could potentially be worse than what kudzu has become. Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense, was once widely planted as privacy hedges and foundation plants. It has a thick, shrubby growth habit and can be considered “bulletproof” or almost invincible, to even the worst home gardener.
The aggressive nature of this plant, along with its ability to produce thousands of seeds per season, results in the formation of dense growths of privet in natural areas. These almost impenetrable colonies can choke out existing plants and prevent other native plants from growing. As mentioned, the plant blooms densely and produces loads of berries. These small, purple berries are loved by many species of birds, leading to numerous populations of privet along fence rows and wood lines. Adaptable to most any environment, privet hedge will inhabit both shady, wet conditions as well as dry, sunny locations. Aside from concentrated herbicides, privet has no enemies and can quickly take over open lots, woodlands and seemingly anywhere else. Although this plant is visibly becoming our biggest threat to naturalized areas, many people continue to buy and plant this shrub. There are many alternatives to this exotic invasive including boxwoods, Japanese hollies, and dwarf yaupon.
So, that’s my list of top five garden thugs in the landscape. There are many others that could potentially be many others that fall into the thug category so when choosing a new plant try doing a little research, talk to your local garden center or call your local Extension office to ensure that this new plant will not become another landscape headache.
written by Hunter McBrayer of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). He is an Urban Regional Extension Agent housed in the Marshall County Extension Office.
Question: There are a lot of plants with the term “weed” in their name; some are sold in nurseries and in catalogues. I think several are beautiful plants and I’ve purchased them for my flower garden. I have the same question about “worts”, or rather plants that include the term in their names. What is the deal with naming plants after “weeds” and “worts”; why not rename them so people would use them more in their gardens?
Answer: We have to name objects and items, it’s just in our nature. And if we don’t know the “proper” name, a nickname does just fine. As with people, whom we name “tiny”, whether they’re 2 feet or 7 feet tall, plant names are usually descriptive, affectionate, or informative.
Weeds, often described in less than polite terms by those attempting the “perfect” lawn, garden, or landscape, are mostly plants growing where we don’t want them. Even that assessment is changing however, as biologists and ecologists are recognizing weeds for their role in the food web, and ability to prevent soil erosion in difficult environments.
A good example of our confusion with “weeds” are the Milkweed plants. One example, is known botanically as Asclepias syriaca, this is the only food the very picky Monarch butterfly juvenile (caterpillar) will eat during this phase of its life. If in our efforts to eradicate “weeds”, Milkweed plants are whacked, Monarch caterpillars won’t have anything to eat. No Milkweed, no caterpillars, no Monarchs.
Other plants named “weed” that are really likable once we get to know them: Joe –Pye Weed (Eutrochium purpureum), a ‘tall Paul’ in the landscape, but attractive to butterflies and gardeners alike.
Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) is related to Milkweed, and sports bright red/orange flowers that attract as many children as they do butterflies and hummingbirds. Monarch caterpillars eat this plant too; in fact all Asclepias sp.
Ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata) attracts birds and butterflies to its reddish-purple flowers which top stems that reach 6-7 feet in height! A “wallflower” this isn’t!
“Worts” on the other hand, are non-woody plants historically associated with medicinal cures such as those described in the Doctrine of Signatures, which suggests that plants resembling various body parts can be used to treat ailments of those parts. Therefore, lungwort (Pulmonaria sp) would cure diseases of the lung, spleenwort (Asplenium sp) of the spleen, and liverwort (Hepatica nobilis) … well you get the picture. All of these plants however, have a definite place in the landscape, growing in conditions ranging from shade to sun, acid to alkaline soil, with flowers in white and shades of pink, blue and purple. Other “worts” that add either interest or color to the garden, or both, include bladderwort, lousewort, moneywort, pennywort, and St. John’s wort. This last plant, Hypericum perforaturm, in addition to its use in the landscape, is considered a medicinal plant with anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the landscape or flower bed, its bright yellow flowers add color during summer months. St. John’s wort and most of the weeds and worts mentioned in this article are perennials, returning year after year.
The bottom line: just as “a rose by any other name would smell as sweet”, consider that “weeds” and “worts” have qualities more lovable than their nicknames might suggest. Check out the Birmingham Botanical Garden’s Spring Plant Sale and try growing a few in your yard!
written by Sallie Lee of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). She is housed at the C. Beaty Hanna Horticultural and Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.
As I drive around cities and towns in late winter, I witness crimes of the botanical kind, most often committed against crape myrtles in urban areas. It seems as though the harsh pruning practice, widely known as “crape murder” is becoming more and more common.
Crape myrtles, Lagerstroemia spp, (sometimes spelled crepe myrtle) are one of the most common ornamental plants grown in the urban setting. A multipurpose plant group, crape myrtles are used as specimen plants in foundation plantings, as borders and privacy plants, and along road fronts and sidewalks. Being nearly bulletproof, these plants can handle most anything thrown at them, including getting their heads cut off year after year.
Though originally introduced to Charleston, S.C. circa 1790, crape myrtles have been extremely common for the past 50 or 60 years, with varieties such as ‘Natchez’ and ‘Carolina Beauty’ being widely planted throughout the South. Though still considered a “small” tree, the larger varieties can exceed heights of 35 to 40 feet. But since all plants start small, these larger varieties are sometimes planted where they grow much larger than needed for a chosen spot. This excess-of-tree often leads to the trees being improperly pruned (“topped” or utilizing the "heading cut") to heights of 4 feet or less. This topping takes a beautiful tree down to nothing more than a collection of trunks with no small or secondary branching. If your intent is to find a blooming shrub under 15 feet, consider crape myrtle 'Acoma', 'Hopi', 'Chickasaw', or 'McFadden's Pinkie'.
Other reasons for committing “crape murder” that have been discussed include health, increased number of blooms and wrong location. Many believe, often based on observation alone, that these innocent trees need to be pruned in this terrible fashion. Let me make this clear- THIS IS 100% FALSE!!!!. Generally speaking, trees and shrubs do okay by themselves. We prune trees because WE NEED to prune trees, not because they need us to do it for them. Sure, it can be helpful to remove broken or diseased branches to promote healthy growth but trees are pretty good at taking care of their problems without our help. The next argument that I have heard for butchering crape myrtles is that doing so will increase bloom numbers. This is also a widely spread myth. Crape myrtles are one of the many plants that produce flowers on “new wood” that is grown each spring. Although cutting the canopy back to the main stem(s) will give the illusion of more blooms, it is, in actuality, only concentrating the blooms to fewer branches.
Lastly, many people cut back crape myrtles for size reduction. When these plants were planted, they were small plants and had “small tree” printed on their tag. As we all know, descriptions are always relative to the surrounding. Yes, crape myrtles are smaller than a mature Southern red oak that can reach heights up to 80 feet, but next to a small ranch style house, a 3 story tree is quite significant in the landscape. Many crape myrtles were planted in city settings in very small areas, especially in the grassy medians of highways and roads. Once mature, these plants tend to be larger than the spaces they occupy-thus leading to acts of botanical cruelty.
So, how can we stop the perpetual culture of plant torture? Many people have heard the “Right plant, Right place” mantra that Extension professionals continue to preach, and have for years. There is true wisdom in these old words. Crape myrtle varieties are categorized as “Dwarf Form” (3-5 ft), “Semi-dwarf form” (5-10 feet), “Small trees” (10-20 feet) and “Large Trees” (20 feet and larger). Cultivars in the dwarf form include ‘Centennial’ which blooms a nice shade of purple, ‘Ozark Spring’ which is lavender and ‘Victor’ which puts on a show of dark red blooms for up to 85 days. If you are looking for the pure white blooms of ‘Natchez’ but need something shorter than 40 feet, consider the semi-dwarf variety ‘Acoma’. With high resistance to powdery mildew, recurrent blooming and a beautiful fall color, this tree would fit nicely into most any landscape setting. A favorite of mine is the cultivar ‘Tonto’ which blooms a fiery red and tends to have the form of a multi-stem shrub. For a longer, more complete list see http://www.ag.auburn.edu/hort/landscape/crapemyrtle2.htm
One last question remains that needs to be discussed- what should you do if you or someone else has already committed crape murder? This is a difficult question to answer. First, if the practice has been consistently done over a span of many years and you LIKE the way that it looks, just keep on whacking. If it has been done and you despise the look, there is really only one choice for you- start over. For those that are familiar with the growth habit of crape myrtles, we know that they are known for producing lots of sprouts from the crown of the plant each year- this habit is called “suckering”. Generally we try to prune these suckers off throughout the growing season to give the trees a nice clean appearance. But if you are looking to right a serious wrong, these suckers can be the perfect solution.
First, decide what you want the tree to look like in a few years- multi-stemmed or single- trunked. If you decide that you want a tree that has three main trunks, select and mark five of the best suckers and remove the rest. Now for the choice that you have to make; either leave the old trunks that have been haphazardly cleaved for another year or remove one or two of them down at ground level. Removing the older stems all at once, allows more plant energy to push the new suckers up. If you are nervous to cut them all down (I prefer the term “basal prune”), just leave them for another season or so and wait for the new stems to grow- and boy will they grow! Remember that the root system of the tree is still there and is ready to support a large canopy, plus this tree has the ability to make sucker growth. Those existing roots will really push the suckers up fast and will generate a lot more suckers from the crown. Be fastidious in your removal of the unwanted, excess suckers, and you’ll get faster results. Don’t forget to train the new stems to the look that you prefer. Within three years or so, those “suckers” will be become a nice sized tree again and will soon return the tree to its previous glory.
written by Hunter McBrayer of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). He is housed at the Marshall County Extension Office, which is based at the Marshall County Courthouse in Guntersville, AL.
Q: This time of year I start getting gardening catalogs galore in my mailbox. I enjoy reading through them, looking and drooling over pictures of beautiful vegetables and reading descriptions of them. Can you give any suggestions regarding which catalogs are the best and what I should order? And, where can I find help on when to plant “things” once I’ve decided to buy them?
A: Yes, catalogs come along when we’re dealing with “cabin fever.” We know it’s too early to start the warm season garden in this area, but those pictures are so tempting! Over a period of 3 weeks, my mailbox coughed up nearly a dozen of the colorful things, from all over the country, listing every kind of ornamental, fruit or vegetable known to man, or at least most of them.
How to determine which catalogs offer varieties adapted to the southeastern United States and which ones have efficient and timely delivery systems is based primarily on research; with a little trial and error thrown in. If you’ve lived around here for a few years and know some gardeners, chances are those folks will be happy to offer their stories about which companies seem to know their business and which ones don’t. So, ask your gardening friends, garden club members, etc.
If you’re new to the area, check out books at your local library as they contain a plethora of information on appropriate plant materials for our locale. The public library at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens is one of the best around for plant material. Also, your county Extension office offers publications that help with the “when” part of your question. You may also check the Extension website http://www.aces.edu for two popular planting guides: ANR-0047 Alabama Gardener’s Calendar and ANR-0063 Planting Guide for Home Gardening in Alabama.
Do be careful about a couple of issues. Some seed companies offer plant material that is better adapted to other regions of North America. Some catalogs even offer not-so-subtle warnings with phrases such as “not for southeast U.S.” Take those comments to heart and order only if you’re prepared to experiment. There are companies whose catalogs offer seeds of plants, both ornamental and edible, that are grown on other continents and that are very exotic. While these plants may be beautiful and no one else in the neighborhood has one, they could also be invasive or exhibit less charming characteristics not mentioned in the seed book (catalog). However, that doesn’t mean you can’t try seeds or a plant you’ve not grown before. In fact, to many gardeners, that’s one of the “fun” things about gardening— trying something new every year. Just be a bit cautious about the origins of the plant; we really don’t need another Kudzu vine in Alabama!
While it won’t guarantee success, before ordering from any catalog, know the winter hardiness zone where you live and stick to plants suited for it. This area usually falls in zone 7b or zone 8a. Make sure the plants won’t ship until time to plant in your hardiness zone – most reputable catalog companies will ship close to the time you should plant, but be sure before ordering.
The best catalogs include details such as the correct botanical name of the plant, whether it needs sun or shade, how much water will be required to keep it happy, how short or tall it grows, what wildlife it attracts such as bees, butterflies, hummingbirds, etc. These catalogs often include comments regarding the plant’s drought tolerance, and if vegetables, will tout the pest resistance of some varieties. Information often includes when to plant the bulbs, seeds or transplants, as some are fall blooming but should be planted in spring.
And above all, especially if you’re new to garden catalogs, remember the lovely pictures in the catalog are of mature plants at their best. Yours won’t look that way for a year or two so don’t panic or pull yours out of the ground. Keep trying—that’s what gardeners do, and gardening catalogs are there to support our efforts and lure us into experimenting!
Garden Talk is written by Bethany A. O’Rear of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System, C. Beaty Hanna Horticulture & Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens. Visit the ACES website, www.aces.edu/Jefferson. Like us on Facebook www.facebook.com/alabamacooperativeextensionsystem and follow us on Twitter @acesedu
Question: February is such a curious month for Southerners. St. Valentine’s Day is smack in the middle of it, when red indicates the color of our poor runny noses instead of our lovely blooming roses. February is also American heart month, connecting red roses, love, healthy hearts, and long, happy lives. I’m a gardener, and in addition to growing the deep red “tea” roses my mother grew, want to add vegetables and a few small fruits that are good for me and my family. Suggestions, please and they don’t have to be red although that would be nice.
Roses are red, hearts beat red, too.
Keep yours healthy and working for you!
Yes, St. Valentine had no idea his death on Feb. 14th in 270 A.D. would be associated with roses, chocolate, and love-ever-after, but the support of individuals (Esther Howland) and companies (Hallmark), have enabled his legacy to live on!
Now, aficionados of valentines, roses, chocolate, and hearts have added a 21st century twist to the story. And, since this is a garden column, suggestions for heart-supportive foods we can grow in our gardens and landscapes is quite appropriate.
These fruits and veggies are nutrient rich, or "nutrient dense," meaning compared to total calories, the vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fiber are the winners. So in addition to exercise gained, growing your own means controlling the freshness at harvest time, what (if any) chemicals are added, and in many cases, cost savings.
Tomatoes, not just the red varieties, are tasty sources of antioxidants, Vitamin C and fiber. Interestingly, tomatoes are the most popular food grown in backyards across North America, and Alabama is right there at the top with pounds grown per capita. While it's a little early to plant them, late February is the perfect time to start seedlings indoors for May planting time.
Berries, including blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, and strawberries contain fiber, antioxidants, Vitamin C, are naturally low in calories, and taste best fresh. Most varieties of strawberry are St. Valentine’s red, some are attractive groundcovers, making them a ‘what’s not to love’ plant for gardens and tables. Blueberries are also ornamental landscape additions with their bright red, winter buds.
Apples, perhaps more challenging to grow in Alabama, are wonderful additions to tasty, healthy meals or snacks. I grew up on sliced apples and a thin smear of peanut butter, still one of my favorite mini-meals. Although apples come in colors other than red, many of us associate rosy skinned varieties with healthy children happily munching them.
Swiss chard, grown in vegetable gardens for many years, has moved to the ornamental flower bed by virtue of striking color combinations, leaf shape, and texture. Harvest chard for its load of potassium (proper function of cells) and magnesium (muscle contraction, nerve transmission);enjoy them in salads, steamed and seasoned, or sautéed. This is the perfect time of year to add chard to your garden.
Even though growing cool season veggies broccoli, kale, and Brussels sprouts are not as popular as warm season tomatoes, peppers, squash and okra, their importance to our hearts, joints, and cells is undeniable. Though a former U.S. president famously dismissed broccoli as ‘that food I won’t eat’, many of us enjoy its taste and texture with dips, in stir-fries, and soup. It’s worth growing a small plot as many who’ve consumed fresh broccoli, sprouts, and kale agree their taste is better fresh from the garden!
Garlic and onions are easy to grow, healthy foods for backyards, raised beds, or containers. Red onions fit the month of February red theme, so try growing a small plot of these cholesterol level reducers. Whether green scallions, or sweet yellows, all onions are super easy to grow.
If you want to learn more about growing and preparing these and other berries, fruits, and vegetables, check Extension’s calendar of events for gardening workshops near you. www.aces.edu
written by Sallie Lee of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). She is housed at the C. Beaty Hanna Horticultural and Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.
Q. Last fall, I purchased a home with a very beautiful, established landscape. While I am pretty confident about my abilities to tend to most of these plants, I have two prominent areas that contain a plant whose care is totally foreign to me – roses. SO, with that said, I could use some help with rose maintenance tips, most specifically, pruning. Can you tell me the when’s and how’s of proper rose pruning?
A. Caring for roses may seem like a daunting task, but don’t get discouraged. In my opinion, this plant is definitely worth any additional effort that it may require.
Pruning roses improves the size, quality, and color of blooms, and should be done after the danger of frost is over. In our area, that is typically in late February or early March. However, don’t sharpen your pruners just yet. Before you get started, it is important to know exactly what type of rose you have because the amount of pruning varies with the variety. With that said, however, the first pruning of any rose, no matter the type, should remove dead, damaged, or weak growth.
Pruning can also regulate the number of flowers produced. Leave longer canes if more flowers are desired. If large show-type blooms are desired, cut back to a few canes and head the remaining ones back to 12 to 14 inches above the ground.
Now, let’s discuss specific types. We will start with hybrid teas. As referenced earlier, any canes killed by canes killed by cold, diseases, and insects should be removed first. Next remove all suckers growing below the graft union. Cut all the remaining canes back to 12 to 15 inches above ground or to a bud 1 inch below any damaged part of the cane. Be aware of any cold damage or disease cankers. Cold damage will appear as a browning of the stem and, most often, a brown pith or center of the cane. Cuts should be ¼ inch above a bud and made at a 45-degree angle. On most varieties, it is best to cut to an outside bud. This action encourages growth away from the center of the plant, thereby increasing air movement and light penetration within the canopy.
Floribundas and grandifloras are treated a little differently. These roses should not be pruned as heavily as hybrid teas. Often these roses grow to a considerable height and produce more blooms. Cut back an inch below any darkened area to remove any dead and diseased wood. The entire branch should be removed if it is badly diseased or dead. Three to five strong, healthy canes should be left. Next, any canes having weak growth or those growing toward the center of the plant should be removed. Any remaining canes should be cut 18 to 24 inches above the ground, depending upon the plant’s vigor.
What about KnockOut™ Roses? This type of rose grows vigorously, so you may prune just as vigorously. In fact, KnockOut™ roses can be pruned by one-third to one-half, and will flourish the following growing season. Because of this energetic growth habit, it is recommended to prune them back to about two feet below the height that you want them to reach during the next period of growth. To maintain a more uniform appearance, you can prune these roses for shaping purposes throughout the growing season.
The last type of rose to be mentioned is the climbing rose. Many of these roses bloom in early spring and need pruning at the end of flowering. Any new canes that have developed should be left since these will produce flowers the next year. Cut all old canes back to the ground immediately after flowering. Some varieties of climbers will continue to bloom throughout the growing season. These varieties produce new canes from old canes rather than from the base of the plant. It is best to leave five or six strong healthy canes and o remove the older canes at the ground. Sometimes these remaining canes produce heavy branching. To control growth and encourage flowering, these lateral branches should be kept headed back. Faded flower clusters should be removed too.
Now, there is one more point to mention. No matter the type of rose or the pruning time, it is imperative to properly disinfect your pruning tools. Be sure to wipe the cutting surface with rubbing alcohol or a 10% bleach solution. This is your first line of defense in decreasing spread of disease.
I hope this information is helpful. Happy Gardening!
written by Bethany A. O’Rear of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). She is housed at the C. Beaty Hanna Horticultural and Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens. For answers to these and other garden questions, call the Helpline at 877-252-4769 (877-ALA-GROW).
Back in 1965, the Byrds released a record, written by Pete Seeger entitled, "Turn! Turn! Turn!" I am sure many of you have already begun singing the song: "To everything, turn, turn, turn. There is a season, turn, turn, turn. And a time to every purpose under heaven. A time to be born, a time to die, a time to plant, a time to reap. . ." Today I want to talk to you about planting. January is a time to plant.
As a forester, when I think of the winter months I think of two things: prescribed burning and tree planting. Many people do not realize this, but after a timber harvest, if the landowner chooses to plant pine trees, they will plant approximately 550 longleaf or 730 loblolly pines per acre. That works out to around 22,000 - 29,000 trees on a forty acre block. There's a myth in the community that timber companies "rape and pillage" the land, however, nothing could be further from the truth. The foresters and timber companies I know from my travels across this country are very concerned with the environment. For example in 2014, the Westervelt Company, based in Tuscaloosa, grew over 6.5 million pine seedlings to be planted on its land this winter. On my old truck I have a bumper sticker that says, "To a Forester, Everyday is Earth Day".
What timber companies are doing in mass, our cities, towns, and individuals can do too. January is the time to plant. I hear people say, "I don't want trees on my property, they are messy." Sure trees drop their leaves, needles, nuts and cones, but trees provide many benefits too. First, properly planted trees will cut your heating and cooling bills by better than a third. Secondly, trees help to encourage spending and reduce crime by providing a welcoming atmosphere in the community, by encouraging "front porch sitting" and friendly interaction with walkers on the sidewalk. Third, trees also increase the property value of your home. While living in Upstate NY a friend of mine asked me to cut down his three mature black walnut trees for lumber. While he was about to make $20,000 for the sale of those three lumber trees, he was going to lose $100,000 off the real estate value of his house. Needless to say, I did not cut those trees down. Fourthly, trees protect our communities in large storms. A study was done in Mobile following Hurricane Ivan. Because of the large number of trees that fell during the storm, someone asked, "If we had no trees would Mobile have fared better in the storm?" The wind study came back with a resounding no! Without trees, the buildings take a direct blow from hurricane force winds. With the trees, Mobile was spared catastrophic damage. In a storm trees behave like a motorcycle helmet in an accident. Trees take the force of the wind and deflect it from the ground. Some trees break and cause damage, but without them even more buildings would collapse.
January is the time to plant. When planting trees one must consider the size and species of the mature tree. Trees grow into three size classes: large canopy, midstory, and understory trees. Planting large canopy trees next to the power lines or the sidewalk is doomed for failure. These trees will soon out grow their growing space and cause problems. Understory trees should be planted in these locations. As for the issue of species consideration, each tree has its "likes and dislikes" of where to live. Pines can handle droughty locations better than most hardwoods. Pine should be planted at the top of mountain ridges and on south/west facing slopes. Hardwoods should be planted on cool north/east facing slopes and in the bottoms. Every September I receive scores of calls from homeowners who planted a beautiful red or sugar maple in their yard 10-15 years ago only to watch it die. Normally it was planted out in the open, in full sunlight as the tag instructed. But in the South, maple trees are understory trees. They may reach the large canopy size, but only in the creek bottoms. In the North, maples are large canopy trees. Up there, they reach the size of our oaks; however, during my eight years in Upstate NY, we reached 90 degrees in only two of the summers. Ask where your tree was grown and look for those grown in a southeastern nursery. Also, another fact of maples is that they are shallow rooted. They like living in the bottoms where the water level is high. If a homeowner adds soil around the roots, to ease mowing, they will suffocate the tree. I share this information with you, because none of us like to see our handiwork go to waste.
Yes, January is the time to plant. Make a plan, do your research, and get out the shovel. If you need help, call your County Extension office (http://www.aces.edu/directory/ ). Extension agents are more than happy to help you with your dreams to find the right tree.
written by Andrew J. Baril of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System, C. Beaty Hanna Horticulture & Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.