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It is just about that time- time to plant the summer garden! While many are still harvesting cool-season crops like lettuce, kale and cabbage, the time for tomato and squash has yet to come. Whether you are a first time gardener getting ready to jump into an exciting new hobby or a long time enthusiast that’s gearing up for another year, planting the garden is an exciting time of anticipation. No matter your “experience level” consider a pest management plan before you plant. You might already know to choose resistant varieties, but do you know about companion plantings? They are a good addition to your pest management tool box.
Companion planting by definition, is using different crops in close proximity for pest control, pollination, providing habitat for beneficial creatures, maximizing use of space, and to otherwise increase the harvest crop productivity. So what does this mean for the home gardener? The benefits of companion plants includes providing cover for shade loving plants, repelling harmful insects, attracting beneficial insects, or by providing necessary soil requirements for other plants.
While the term companion planting may be new to you, this technique has been used for quite a while. Have you ever seen marigolds interplanted with okra or squash? What about planting basil near tomatoes? All of these are examples of companion planting. Marigolds have long been the garden superhero when intermixed in our vegetable gardens. While both African and French marigolds produce biochemicals from their roots that are toxic to root-knot nematodes, the benefit is greatest when these pungent plants are tilled into the soil the year prior to planting tomatoes in that spot. That being said, there are a lot of gardeners who swear that marigolds will repel beetles, nematodes and even some animal pests. I just say that they are pretty, they add diversity to the garden, and can attract butterflies to our garden which is always a plus. Another example of this is to plant dill and basil near the tomatoes. This can be for more than making bruschetta a bit easier; both crops have been documented to reduce the pressure from tomato hornworms.
While many gardeners focus on eradicating all insects from the vegetable garden, it is important to remember that there are far more beneficial insects than those that cause harm to our plants. Planting carrots, fennel, parsley, and cilantro can actually attract beneficial insects like praying mantis, lady bugs and spiders by providing shelter for them and other beneficial or parasitic insects. These “good guys” are protectors of the garden, seeking out harmful insects and eating them! Other good bug attractive plants? - thyme, rosemary, yarrow, chamomile, and cover crops like clover and buckwheat. [See native plant, mountain mint, above with Scoliid wasps]
Companion plantings are also used to actually attract harmful insects. Plants like nasturtium are more appetizing to aphids than many vegetables in the garden; luring these tiny but harmful pests away from our “cash crop”. In several experiments by Alabama Extension, we have seen that planting these crops that are more appetizing to the harmful insects greatly reduces their numbers on the harvest crop we're trying to protect. This also allows us to direct insecticides where the larger group of pest are feeding (on the trap crop) and reduce the need for insecticides on the harvest crops; like tomatoes and squash.
Lastly, we can use companion planting to create micro-climates in an otherwise over-heated garden. This is a technique we use outside of the vegetable garden as well, like planting blueberries, azaleas and camellias under the filtered shade of pines and oaks. This provides them with needed cover which minimizes afternoon heat. In the vegetable garden, plants like lettuce, kale, broccoli and other cool season crops can be planted on the garden's east side where they can be shaded by taller plants in the afternoon. Afternoon shade can delay their tendency to bolt as the days heat up and lengthen the harvest season.
With a little planning, we can better plant our garden to naturally avoid some pest and disease problems. Remember to check last year's garden notes to prepare for cyclical problems and avoid surprises where possible. Though planting these companions helps, there is still a need for a balanced IPM program using cultural, mechanical, biological, and chemical (natural or synthetic) controls to keep crop plants healthy and productive. For more information on companion planting, vegetable gardening, and other gardening questions, contact your local Alabama Extension Office. Check out or website, www.aces.edu for more information and publications.
Written by Hunter McBrayer, Urban Regional Extension Agent, of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). He is housed at the Marshall County Extension Office, which is based at the Marshall County Courthouse in Guntersville, AL.
Although there may not be much to do in the winter garden, February can be an important and critical time if growing and caring for fruit crops. So much has to be done each year during this month to ensure fruit trees and small fruits grow and produce successfully. The number one chore is pruning. (photo credit: Andrew Butko)
Pruning fruit crops each year will result in healthy plants and better production of quality fruit. Once fruit trees and small fruit crops have been planted, training must begin next. Since fruits are being grown for the production of food, proper pruning is needed to maximize production, and to make sure the plant is strong enough to physically hold up all the weight of the fruit. Young plants are typically pruned and trained for the first several years primarily to develop the plants' proper structure and size. Once flowering and fruiting begins, usually in the third or fourth year, some additional pruning is done to help prevent the breakage of limbs.
For established fruit trees, the first pruning cuts are to remove any sucker growth that may have sprouted below the graft. Next, all diseased and damaged wood is taken out. Then look at the fruit tree and cut out all growth that crosses or rubs other branches. Since fruit develops best where it gets adequate sunlight and air, areas that are thick in growth or crowded must also be thinned, or opened up, to allow more light and air movement. Lastly, prune and trim back any other growth down to a more reachable, comfortable size.
Small fruit crops such as muscadine grapes, blueberries, and blackberries require more specific pruning techniques. For more information, contact the Alabama Cooperative Extension System.
Willie Datcher, Regional Extension Agent (home office - Greene County)
Q. It is finally beginning to feel like fall. The temperatures are cooling down, the leaves are beginning to change colors, and we are spending a lot more time outside, enjoying our surroundings. However, I had the unfortunate experience of stepping into a fire ant mound that seemed to appear overnight. Needless to say, it was not pleasant in the least. Is now a good time to treat for these angry little nuisances?
A. Ouch - not exactly how anyone would want to start the fall season! However, now is the perfect time to rid your lawn or landscape of these unwelcome invaders!
“Fall is a great time to treat fire ants,” Dr. Kathy Flanders, an Alabama Cooperative Extension Entomologist said. “Fall temperatures are perfect for fire ant activity and foraging, making it an opportune time to put out fire ant bait.”
While the warm weather is rolling out and cooler air moves in, fire ants are still actively foraging. Fire ants look for protein-rich foods all year, but especially in the late spring and early fall. Foragers usually continue searching for food until temperatures drop below 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Using treatment plans like the
Two Step Method (details listed below), can provide specific and continued control of fire ants, in a cost-effective way. Two Step MethodStep 1. Broadcast a fire ant bait once or twice a year to reduce fire ant colonies by 80 to 90 percent.Step 2. Treat nuisance mounds or colonies that move into the bait-treated areas. Step 2 may not be needed
Not only are fire ants a nuisance outdoors, but they can wreak havoc indoors, as well. Fire ants will be looking for a warm place to overwinter. Double-checking door seals, pipe coverings and concrete foundations can help prevent a home invasion in the winter. As temperatures drop, fire ants begin searching for warm places to spend the cold months. Often, this means mounds inside the house or built against the foundation.
Alabama Cooperative Extension professionals developed management options for treating fire ants inside homes and buildings. The first and most important suggestion: treat fire ants in the surrounding landscape to prevent fire ant infestations near the home.
Be sure to inspect your pile of leaves, wood stack or winter garden, for fire ants. Outdoor temperatures determine the amount of activity present in a fire ant mound. When the temperatures are right, leaf or compost piles, wood stacks and winter gardens are all likely hiding places for fire ants.
Flanders said it is important to check for fire ants before playing, working or carrying wood inside. A proactive approach to controlling fire ants in these areas would be best. This is also a time to consider a slow-acting bait for continued control going into the cold season. Treat the areas before piling up leaves to play in or for compost, treat your preferred firewood location and treat your garden before planting.
For increased success, controlling fire ants should definitely be a team effort. Working with neighbors or surrounding landowners can boost your chances of knocking a dent in the population. Fire ant control is more effective when larger areas are treated. When an 80-90% control rate is acceptable, consider participating in a community- or neighborhood-wide treatment program. If the problem is widespread, a large treatment plan could be more effective than treating in small areas. Flanders said Extension professionals have developed a community-wide management program that is available for use and implementation.
For more information on controlling fire ants, please visit www.aces.edu or http://www.extension.org/fire_ants . Happy Fall!
written by Bethany A. O’Rear of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). She is housed at the C. Beaty Hanna Horticultural and Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.
Whether fried, baked, candied or in pies and casseroles, I love sweet potatoes. Sweet potatoes have long since been a staple in Southern gardens. An easy crop to grow, these delicious tubers are becoming a common appearance on restaurant menus. Whether this is your first time to grow the plants or if you have been growing sweet potatoes for years, you are sure to be pleasantly surprised with the coming harvest.
Sweet potatoes, (Ipomea batatas), are thought to have originated in Central and South America; with sweet potato remains being dated back to 8000 BC! Today, sweet potatoes are grown around the world, often called a yam. One important note is that a sweet potato is a sweet potato and not a yam. Yams are a completely different crop botanically speaking, that originates from Africa. To prevent confusion, the United States Department of Agriculture requires that sweet potatoes be labeled as sweet potatoes.
Growing sweet potatoes is easy, assuming that you have plenty of water, well-drained soil and a strong back for harvest time. Sweet potatoes are grown from transplants or sprouts called "slips" produced from the roots of the previous season's crop and from vine cuttings. If choosing slips, be sure to ask for "certified" slips to avoid plant diseases. Being one of our warm season crops, sweet potatoes are extremely susceptible to frost, so they should be planted well after the last threat of frost in spring. Generally speaking, these plants are not very susceptible to insects or disease, making it a great crop for home gardens.
One of the most common questions that I receive as an Extension Agent concerning sweet potatoes is “When can I harvest these?”. As mentioned before, sweet potatoes are sensitive to cold temperatures, so harvest should occur well before cold temperatures begin to set in. The tubers generally begin to mature after about 90 days and should peak by 120 days after planting. For those gardeners who are not very good at record keeping, harvest the sweet potatoes when 30 percent are larger than 3½ inches in diameter. Harvest before frost because cool soil temperatures can reduce the quality and storage life of the tubors. When harvesting, it is best to cut and remove the vines before digging; be gentle while digging due to the soft, thin skins of fresh tubers.
Lastly, one of the most important things to remember is that you can grow some of the best potatoes in the county, but if not cured and stored properly, you will lose them to various rots and other quality reducing factors. Sweet potatoes should be cured to heal wounds and to convert some of the starch in the roots to sugar. The optimal conditions for curing are to expose the roots to 85 °F and 90-percent humidity for one week. Few home gardeners can supply these conditions, so place the sweet potatoes in the warmest room in the house, usually the kitchen, for 14 days. No curing will occur at temperatures below 70 °F. Never refrigerate sweet potatoes but keep them stored in a cool dry place where temperatures will not drop below 50 °F.
Sweet potatoes are an easy crop that, if watered and harvested correctly, can be a crop that lends to a winter of healthy and delicious meals. For more information about sweet potatoes and other gardening topics, contact your local Alabama Extension office or visit us online at ww.aces.edu.
Written by Hunter McBrayer, Urban Regional Extension Agent, of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). He is housed at the Marshall County Extension Office, which is based at the Marshall County Courthouse in Guntersville, AL.
Earlier this summer, I began a series of articles on Lawn and Landscape Pests. We have looked at chipmunks and armadillos. As I watch the highway construction around the I-65/I-22 intersection, I think of the trail builders of our lawns. Moles and voles build a series of trails that kill large patches of grass as they crisscross through the grass in search of food. Last month we looked at moles, today let’s look at voles. Voles, also called meadow mice or field mice, are compact rodents with stocky bodies, short legs, and short tails. Their eyes are small and their ears partially hidden; which distinguish them from true mice with bulbous eyes and erect ears. There are 23 vole species in the United States. Here in the Eastern US, we have the small Woodland or Pine Vole (Microtus pinetorum). Its total length is 4 to 6 inches. Its brown fur is soft and dense. The underparts are gray mixed with some yellow to cinnamon.
Voles occupy a wide variety of habitats. They prefer areas with heavy ground cover of grasses, grass-like plants, or litter. The pine vole inhabits a variety of habitats such as deciduous and pine forests. They also like to use habitats modified by humans, such as orchards, fencerows, windbreaks, abandoned and cultivated fields. Voles eat a wide variety of plants, most frequently grasses and forbs. In late summer and fall, they store seeds, tubers, bulbs, and rhizomes. They eat bark primarily in winter; will eat crops, and at times snails, insects, and carrion.
Voles are active day and night, year round. Home range is usually 1/4 acre or less but varies with season, population density, habitat, food supply, and other factors. Voles construct many tunnels and surface runways with numerous burrow entrances. A single burrow system may contain several adults and young. Voles normally breed in spring and summer, can have up to 5 litters/year, and average 3 to 6 pups/litter. The gestation period is about 21 days, the young are weaned by 21 days old, and females mature in 40 days. Lifespans are short, lasting around a year, but mortality is very high; about 80% never make it past the first month. Large population fluctuations are characteristic of voles.
During these high population swings, voles may cause extensive damage to orchards, ornamentals, and tree plantings due to their girdling of seedlings and mature trees. Girdling damage usually occurs in fall and winter. Field crops (for example, alfalfa, clover, grains, potatoes, and sweet potatoes) may be damaged or destroyed by voles. Voles not only eat crops, but they also damage them when they build extensive runway and tunnel systems. Voles also can ruin lawns, golf courses, and ground covers through their gnawing and runway systems.
The best control for a large farm is toxicants, for the average homeowner the mouse/rat trap or a crew of cats work fine.
Written by Andrew J. Baril of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System, C. Beaty Hanna Horticulture & Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.
Q: My summer vegetable garden has finally bit the dust (no pun intended), but I am just not quite ready to put the garden tools up for the season. Can you give some details on growing vegetables in the fall?
A: As summer nears its end, it is time to gear up for another planting (and future harvest) season. This month is the perfect time to get your cool-season vegetable seeds and/or transplants in the ground. While several cool-weather crops can survive when planted in spring, they typically do not thrive, especially in spring weather like we experienced this year. Many cool-season vegetables, such as carrots, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, produce their best flavor and quality when they mature during cool weather. In Alabama, the spring temperatures often heat up quickly making vegetables such as lettuce and spinach bolt or develop a bitter flavor when they mature during hot summer weather.
As with any garden, careful planning and good garden management are crucial to your success. The first step is site preparation. Before preparing the soil for a fall garden, you must decide what to do with the remains of the spring/summer garden. In most cases, the decision is not difficult because the warm-season vegetables are beginning to look ragged. Remove all crop residues and weed growth, and till or spade the soil to a minimum depth of 6-8 inches.
If the spring crops were heavily fertilized, you may not need to make an initial preplant fertilization. If not, you can apply 1 to 2 pounds of a complete fertilizer such as 10-10-10 per 100 square feet of bed space. Be sure to thoroughly incorporate the fertilizer.
The next step is deciding on a planting method. Most cool-season varieties are available in seed and transplant form. If you choose to sow seed, maintaining adequate moisture is imperative to germination as well as continued growth after germination. An overhead sprinkler can help provide seeds with sufficient moisture to germinate. We all know how hot and dry late summer in Alabama can be, so be sure to keep the soil moist until the young seedlings have emerged.
Now, you should begin your regular vegetable garden maintenance routine. Continue to water based on the needs of the plants. As the plants mature, move from frequent, light waterings to single, deep applications. Like their spring-maturing relatives, most fall-maturing vegetables benefit from nitrogen sidedressing.
It is not uncommon for insects and diseases to be more abundant in the fall, mostly as a result of a buildup in their populations during the spring and summer. You may be able to keep these pests at tolerable levels, if you follow a few strategies. Strive to keep fall vegetables healthy and actively growing. Check plants frequently for insect or disease damage. If significant damage is detected, use an approved pesticide.
You can extend the season of tender vegetables by protecting them through the first early frost. In Alabama, we often enjoy several weeks of good growing conditions after the first frost. Cover growing beds or rows with burlap or a floating row cover supported by stakes or wire to keep the material from directly touching the plants. You can protect individual plants by covering them with milk jugs, paper caps, or water-holding walls.
Good luck and happy gardening!
Written by Bethany A. O’Rear of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). She is housed at the C. Beaty Hanna Horticultural and Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.
Q. We've had some super hot and dry weather this summer. We get an occasional hit and miss shower, but some of my plants still look rough. Will the plants in most landscapes survive the dry spells without supplemental watering?A. Yes, it has been a doozy this summer, so I am not surprised that your plants are showing symptoms. Also, the problem has only been compounded by the fact that we had an unusually cool, wet spring before summer so the heat effect is exaggerated. Plants became accustomed to just the right amount of rain, at just the right time. With hot, dry weather, they have trouble acclimating themselves. Trees and shrubs that have been planted a year or less are the most vulnerable. However, plants that are well established and healthy can withstand much more drought stress. Of course there are exceptions to all generalities.
For instance, very well established Azaleas and Hydrangeas easily show drought symptoms. These plants have relatively shallow root systems adapted to semi-shady light conditions and moist (not wet) soil environments. Many times these plants are located in less than optimal landscape conditions and they suffer as a result from the heat of full sun. There are numerous other examples and plant needs must be looked on in a case by case basis. Therefore, it pays you to learn a little about specific plant needs prior to planting.
In the western part of the country many people have adopted a gardening practice called xeriscaping. I don’t really like the word for our region because it implies you must grow cactus or succulent plants only. Actually, the priciple is much more balanced and involves grouping plants by water needs and limiting heavy water use areas. It also involves implementing some very common sense water use practices. I have a few of these tips listed below and I encourage you to put them into practice.
All in all, this summer has actually been luxurious considering we had at least some rainfall in each month. In past summers, we've missed seeing rain for a month or longer. For more tips and information on drought tolerant plants visit the following link: http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-1336/ANR-1336.pdf or call the Master Gardener Helpline toll free at 877-252-GROW.Written by Bethany A. O’Rear of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES). She is housed at the C. Beaty Hanna Horticultural and Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.
Do you have garden or landscape questions and can't find answers? Master Gardener volunteers answer this toll-free line, 877-252-4769 (ALA-GROW) giving advice to all residential landscape questions. Call them today! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PVJgNyeR14
Q. I read about a new disease affecting boxwoods. I have quite a few boxwoods in my landscape, and I am a little worried. What is this disease and what does it look like?
A. Unfortunately, you heard correctly. Our cool, wet spring this year, set the stage for the development and spread of a new landscape disease - boxwood blight. The disease has been present in other southeastern states several years, but just recently arrived in Alabama.
Boxwood blight is a fungal disease that was detected in installed landscapes across Alabama this spring. When infected boxwoods are planted in a landscape, the pathogen can easily spread to other established boxwoods via splashing water, whether irrigation or rain. Additionally, equipment, soil, shoes, clothing and even animals can aid in the dispersal of this disease.
So, what should you look for? Symptoms of boxwood blight include circular, tan leaf spots with darker borders. The spots may develop a bulls-eye appearance. Infected leaves will turn brown and rapidly drop from the plant. The sudden defoliation and resulting leaf litter scattered around the base of the plant are important symptoms to look for, as well.
Defoliated stems may produce new shoots, giving the appearance that the plants will recover, only to have another round of leaf spots and related leaf drop. The stems develop dark brown or black thin lesions or streaks that are also unique to boxwood blight. (Photo: Adria Bordas, VT Institute and State University, Bugwood.org)
What can you do? There is no known cure for boxwood blight. However, a number of steps can be taken to prevent the spread of the blight.
While this disease is not yet widespread, we should become aware of it and be observant. Following the steps listed above can greatly inhibit the distribution of boxwood blight throughout our Alabama landscapes. If you suspect that one or more of your boxwoods are showing symptoms, please consult with your local extension agent. Also, for further diagnosis, you may send pictures or samples to the Plant Diagnostic Laboratory in Birmingham, http://www.aces.edu/counties/Jefferson/plantlab/ .
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