20180120_102139.jpgThe Alabama Invasive Plant Council, working with ACES personnel, recently received a small grant from the US Forest Service to help with invasive plant control and outreach at Lagoon Park in Montgomery. Lagoon Park was created several decades ago from a 176 acre disturbed riparian site that was donated to the city of Montgomery. Invasive species were present on the site and have become much more extensive over the years. Lagoon Park Trail volunteers have valiantly cleared invasive plants to establish 6 miles of trails over the years, but invasive plants still abound. Chinese privet and nandina are found throughout the understory of much of the park, while extensive groves of Chinese tallowtree (popcorn tree) lines many of the water ways. Also found are Bradford pear, Japanese and glossy privets, Chinaberry, mimosa (silktree) and thorny olive.

The objectives of the grant are to provide funds and expertise to take the control efforts at the park to the next level and to educate park visitors through demonstrations, interpretive signs and workdays.  

The first workday was held Saturday morning, Jan 20. Luckily most of the snow from earlier in the week had melted! Using cut stump treatments, volunteers cleared a lot of privet and nandina from alongside one of the upper trails. A dozen people can get a lot done in half a day!

For more information on Chinese privet control and cut stump treatments, see:



Nancy Loewenstein

Extension Specialist
Forestry and Wildlife Sciences
Geographic Area of Responsibility:
Office Address and Contact Information:
3301 Forestry Wildlife Bldg.  
Auburn University, AL 36849  
Show Map 

Mobile:(334) 332-4610
Fax:(334) 844-1084
Specialty Areas:
invasive plants; tree and plant identification

coyotes016.jpgA recent news article brings to light a growing trend coyote management. Once creatures associated with rural areas and agriculture, the adaptable coyote now seems to not only occur, but thrive, in urban and suburban environments. As these animals become more plentiful in and adjacent to neighborhoods, it is inevitable that conflicts will occur. Such activities as a leaving pet food outdoors or garbage cans open and accessible will serve to attract coyotes to the area. Humans should never intentionally feed or try to bring coyotes closer to human dwellings but, rather, take managers to discourage coyotes from being comfortable around human activity.

Photo Source: Dr. Jim Armstrong

Jim Armstrong

Extension Specialist Professor
Forestry and Wildlife Sciences
Geographic Area of Responsibility:
Office Address and Contact Information:
3331 Forestry Wildlife Building  
Auburn University, AL 36849  
Show Map 

Mobile:(334) 707-1518
Fax:(334) 844-1084

​The commercial interest in and use of UAV’s (drones) in forestry and wildlife management is growing. Like any new technology the workplace safety implications of these devices include some unknowns. The publication on the link outlines some of the operational and safety issues in commercial use in construction. The points in the article may help UAV users develop safety program components for controlling UAV safety hazards.


Mathew Smidt
Extension Specialist & Professor
Forestry and Wildlife Sciences
3301 Forestry and Wildlife Sciences Building 
Auburn University, AL 36849-5627 
Show Map 

Fax:(334) 844-1084
Specialty Areas:
General timber harvesting and logging; logger training and education; logging safety; timber harvesting best management practices for water quality; logging impacts on soil; logging impacts on aesthetics; hardwood log grading.

mosleywalker.pngWhen it comes to natural resource management in Alabama, we have A LOT of great people doing A LOT of great things.  And I'm not talking about all the skilled professionals in our natural resource agencies and non-governmental organizations who are indeed doing a fabulous job in protecting, managing, and conserving our state's valuable resources.  What I'm really talking about are all those average ordinary private citizens who have volunteered a substantial amount of their time, energy, and in some cases personal financial resources, to help make sure current and future generations of Alabamians are able to enjoy productive forests, abundant wildlife, clean water, and fresh air.  From participation on county natural resource committees to hosting field days on their property to educate others, some volunteers go far above and beyond what could ever be expected of them.  It becomes a passion for them.  One such volunteer is Dr. Max Walker who recently was the recipient of a W. Kelly Mosley Environmental Award recognizing his voluntary contributions to the promotion of the wise use of Alabama natural resources.

As an owner of a certified Tree Farm and TREASURE forest, Dr. Walker has always been an active promoter of wise use management of Alabama natural resources.  Through his leadership and support roles in the Crenshaw County TREASURE Forest Chapter, Soil and Water Conservation District, and Forestry Planning Committees, Dr. Walker has made significant contributions to educate forest landowners of the value of proper forest and natural resource management.  Dr. Walker also has a passion for youth activities that not only educate youth about our natural resources but also develop leadership skills. He has been an active supporter of youth programs including Classroom in the Forest, Farm Safety Day, and Farm City Week.  The above represents only a few of the activities Dr. Walker has been involved with.  We don't have enough space in this blog to cover all his contributions!


So if you know of someone like Dr. Walker who has really made a difference, please consider nominating them for a W. Kelly Mosley Environmental Award.  Yes, it takes time to develop a good nomination, but it's the right thing to do for people who are doing the right thing!


For over 30 years the W. Kelly Mosley Environmental Award for Achievement in Forestry, Wildlife and Related Resources recognizes has recognized those "unsung heroes" who have voluntarily contributed significantly to the wise stewardship of Alabama's natural resources.   These volunteer efforts may be in, for example, forestry, wildlife, fisheries, soil, water, air, wildflowers, non-game wildlife, environmental education, conservation, or urban forestry.  Almost anyone may be eligible - youths, adults, practitioners, professionals, technicians, individual citizens, and groups - if their voluntary contributions have resulted in the wiser use of our natural resources and the betterment of our communities.  To learn more about the W. Kelly Mosley Environmental Awards Program or to submit a nomination, please visit our website at http://www.aces.edu/natural-resources/mosley/.

Caption for the photo:  Dr. Max Walker (center) receives a W. Kelly Mosley Environmental Award from Dr. Mark Smith (left), executive secretary of the Mosley Awards Program and Crenshaw County Extension Coordinator Derek Bryan who nominated Dr. Walker for the award.

Mark Smith
Associate Professor Extension Specialist
Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

3301 Forestry and Wildlife Science Bldg.  
Auburn University, AL 36849  
Show Map 

Mobile:(334) 332-4833
Fax:(334) 844-1084
Specialty Areas:
Wild pig damage management, game and non-game population and habitat management.

​It bRed Oak Treeegan again this past weekend.  Like clockwork, in the middle of the night, before the rays of sunlight early Saturday morning, I heard a plunk on our roof.  This is a sound I know well.  My wife and I have been living in our little mountain cabin for over ten years now.  I've heard this sound before.  For the months of October and November, I will be hearing the plinking of oak acorns and hickory nuts on our metal roof.

Here at our Talladega cabin we have a host of oak trees.  We have black, blackjack, cherrybark, chestnut (mountain), northern red, post, southern red, water, white, and willow oaks.  We also have mockernut, pignut, and shagbark hickories along with a whole host of additional hardwoods.  According to one of Extension's publications; "Management of Hardwood Forests for Timber in Alabama", we have around 200 different hardwood species in Alabama, including 25 oaks and 8 hickories.  Because Southern Pines so dominate our timber industries, many people tend to overlook hardwoods.  However, based on US Forest Service inventory research, hardwoods comprise the majority of Alabama's standing timber volume. 

Most of our forest wildlife friends value these hardwoods for food and shelter.  Most of the food value is found in the leaves and seeds.  Leaves are eaten mainly by insects that in turn are eaten by other creatures.  The seeds are eaten by both small and large alike.  How many times have we walked through the woods, picked up seemingly good acorns, only to later find a caterpillar in them?  Yes, insects feed on the seeds too!  Most often when we in Alabama think of acorns and nuts, we think of deer, turkey, and squirrels.  Squirrels need large trees to survive.  Squirrels live off seed sources from hickories, oaks, and pines.  Deer and turkey are different.  They require a variety of habitats.  They like both field and forest.  During the fall, acorns and nuts provide the needed fat in their diets to help see them through the lean days of winter.  Humans can also consume acorns, but they are not as tasty as your cultivated pecans.  The meat inside the shell contains higher levels of tannic acid than what we are accustomed.  Indians used to collect acorns from white and chestnut oaks along with American chestnuts, black walnut, and wild pecan as a food source for the long winter months. As a side note; within the white oak family (oaks that produce white lumber) the acorns mature in one year, while those in the red oak family (pink lumber) take two years to produce mature acorns.  Also, white oak family acorns tend to be larger than the red oak acorns. 

Fall is my favorite season of the year.  Cool Canadian air, leaves a changing on the hillsides, and college football, for me, it all began this weekend with a single plink on my roof.

Garden Talk is written by Andrew J. Baril of the Alabama Cooperative Extension System, C. Beaty Hanna Horticulture & Environmental Center, which is based at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens.  This column includes research-based information from land-grant universities around the country, including Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities.  Email questions to ajb0012@auburn.edu, or call 205 879-6964. Learn more about what is going on in Jefferson County by visiting the ACES website, www.aces.edu/Jefferson or checking us on Facebook and Twitter.  The Alabama Cooperative Extension System (Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities), is an equal opportunity employer and educator.  Everyone is welcome!

tractor.pngIf you would like to improve the overall health of your wildlife, along with your chances to see and harvest deer and turkey, you should plan now to establish cool-season food plots.  Outside of sound habitat management (timber harvest, prescribed fire, native plantings, etc.), there is arguably no better way to improve your viewing/hunting success for many species than by providing high-quality winter food. Often times, these plots can benefit both game and non-game species for several months at their greatest times of need.

Location, Location, Location

First things first, you will need to decide where your plot(s) will be located. Ideally, choose sites that are already cleared and will allow you access without being detected by wildlife.  Areas like logging roads/decks, wind damaged areas, secluded corners of crop fields, firebreaks, old fields, and even utility rights-of-way are all great places for a plot.  Areas with the most level topography and moderate soil moisture conditions (not too dry like on high ridges, or too wet in soaked bottoms) are your best bet. Plan to keep them away from boundary lines and roadways to allow game safer and more secluded areas to browse. In conjunction, all of these considerations will decrease the cost and effort to establish the plot and increase the odds of your hunting/viewing success.  

Test it!

By far, soil testing is one of the most important (and often ignored) components of a successful food plot. No different from your lawn, garden, hayfield, or row crops, your food plot requires proper pH and nutrients in order to achieve maximum production and wildlife attraction.  For a fee of only $7 per sample, the Auburn University Soil Testing Laboratory will test and provide recommendations specific to the crop(s) you are looking to plant. Soil test boxes and instructions can be found at your local Extension office.

Results will indicate what lime and nutrients the site needs to be as productive as possible.  It is very important to apply lime if tests indicate it is necessary. This is because if soils are acidic, the majority of nutrients and fertilizer that is applied will be bound in the soil and not available to plants. Those who only rely on fertilizing acidic soils are wasting their resources and not seeing the full potential of their plots. Even more, some plants like clover may not grow at all in highly acidic soils. Although more expensive and short lived, applying pelleted lime now will help this year's plots while spreading agricultural limestone is cheaper and longer lasting but it takes several months to affect pH.

Size and Shape

The ideal size of plots ranges from 0.5 to 3 acres. In forestland, it is a general rule to provide 1%-5% of the area to food plots. This helps to reduce the chances of over browsing and keeps costs to a minimum. Of course, more plots or other types of wildlife openings can be established if desired.

It is better to have several well-distributed smaller plots than just a few large ones. Remember that there is no need for highly irregular shapes, narrow plots, or trees in the plot; all of these factors increase shade and decrease production while reducing your opportunity for clear viewing of wildlife. However, do not be afraid to allow a grassy/shrubby border grow on the perimeter of a plot, this creates a 'soft' edge. Soft edges provide escape cover that many species of wildlife, both young and old, find security with, this often helps to increase use of the plot.

What to Plant?

It is important to understand that the preferences of wildlife will vary by location and the season. Food plots are simply a supplement to the natural food sources. Planting a variety of crops can help to increase the duration use by wildlife and give more bang for your buck. As conditions change and natural food resources are reduced (particularly in the late winter/early spring), the feeding habits of wildlife will steer them towards your cool-season plots.  

By far, the most common cool season plantings (particularly for deer and turkey) are a combination of clovers and cereal grains. Because these combinations grow fast, stay green throughout the winter and early spring, and provide both a source of protein and carbohydrates, they are attractive to a wide variety of wildlife. Annual plantings (Mix 1 & 2) are a great choice for many areas prone to weed issues. This is because the entire plot may be prepared with applications of 2, 4-D and glyphosate in the late spring and again in the late summer to provide grass and broadleaf control prior to planting. Over time, this practice exhausts the seed bank and reduces weed competition.

Clover can be a money saver when it comes to food plots as some clovers can last for 2-5 years (Mix 3 &4), and all clover fixes its own nitrogen (as long as the seed is inoculated), essentially lowering your seed and fertilizer bill. Some clovers come pre-inoculated while others require you to purchase and add the inoculum yourself. 

Mixes - Cereal Grains and Clovers


Mix 1 Mix 2
120 lbs. Wheat 60 lbs. Wheat
30 lbs. Oats 55 lbs. Cereal Rye
5 lb. Crimson Clover 30 lbs. Oats
5 lb. Arrowleaf Clover 5 lb. Crimson Clover
5 lb. Arrowleaf Clover
Clover Mix 3 Clover Mix 4
110 lbs.  Cereal Rye 15 lb. Red Clover
5 lb. Ladino Clover 10 lb. Crimson Clover


Mix rates are per 1-acre

​ ​  

Mixes 1 and 2 perform well on a wide variety of soils and conditions but must be replanted each year, while Mix 3 does best on soils that retain moisture or are more shaded. Mix 4 will produce on sites that become too dry for ladino clovers. Clover Mix 3 can subside for 3-5 years depending on care and clover Mix 4 may produce for two years before requiring replanting.

If you decide to plant a pre-mixed plot mix be sure to read the label so that you can know exactly what you are buying and planting. 


In North Alabama, late August to early November is the best time to plant most cool-season plots, with many traditionally planting around Labor Day weekend. Planting much earlier than this can lead to heat/drought stressed conditions and planting later can risk a killing frost before plants become established. Also, be sure to watch the weather and try to plant with rain in the near forecast to assure the best germination possible.

Soil Preparation

It is best to prepare your plot sites weeks prior to planting. This includes herbicide applications to reduce competition, applying lime and fertilizer as soil tests indicate, and disking or dragging to prepare a seedbed. This prep work prior to planting helps to assure that undesirable plants and cover will be dead which will reduce competition and allow you to more easily work the soil, soil amendments have had time to incorporate and fertilizers won't burn new plantings, and rains and settling will create a firm seed bed that aids in germination.       


Small areas may be broadcast with a hand operated broadcast spreader while larger areas can be broadcast using PTO driven or motorized spreader.

It is important to factor in planting depth when planting any crop, particularly a mix of seeds. Planting cereal grains (large seed) and clovers (small seed) at the same time will ultimately lead to some seeds that are planted too deep while others will be too shallow. It is best to plant the larger cereal grains first as they will be covered deeper, then follow up with top-sewn clovers last.   

Ensuring good soil to seed contact is important for good germination and conserving moisture. Ideally, a roller or cultipacker is best to run over the plot, but a homemade drag of chain or fence can also work well, or just simply driving over the plot with an ATV can also help.  

Cereal Grains

Broadcast small grain mixtures evenly over the seedbed. Lightly disk to cover seeds about 0.5-1 inch deep.


Clovers are broadcast over the seedbed after the small grains have been covered. Again, clover seeds are very small so they should not be covered more than ¼".   

With a little preplanning and careful site selection, preparation, and planting you can provide a great wildlife plot that can impact both game and non-game species all the while helping to improve your hunting or wildlife viewing success. 

Information like this and so much more is available at your counties Alabama Cooperative Extension System office.  Please give us a call or make a visit!

Norm Haley

Regional Extension Agent – Forestry, Wildlife, & Natural Resources

Norm may be reached by contacting the DeKalb County Extension office at (256)-845-8595 or by e-mail at nvh0001@aces.edu           

wildpigflyer6.30.17.pngThere are two groups of landowners in Alabama….those who have wild pigs, and those who are about to have wild pigs.  If you're in the first group, landowners currently dealing with wild pigs, you know already know just how destructive they can be and how difficult it is to get rid of them. Luckily we have several "How to" seminars throughout the state to help landowner learn how to get rid of wild pigs to reduce the damage they cause. So if you're having problems and need some help, consider attending one of these information packed seminars with in-field equipment demonstrations.

Landowners Guide for Wild Pig Management Publication

Workshop Registration Website

Mark D. Smith, Ph.D.

Mosley Environmental Associate Professor/Extension Specialist

Alabama Cooperative Extension System

School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

3301 Forestry and Wildlife Sciences Building

602 Duncan Drive

Auburn University, AL  36849-5418

Phone: (334) 844-8099

Fax: (334) 844-1084

Tropical soda apple (TSA) was nearly eradicated across the state during a recent federally funded eradication program.  However, with termination of program funding, reports of this non-native invasive species are on the rise.  Tropical soda apple is of concern as it can form very dense infestations in open to semi-shady areas, especially in pastures where it can greatly reduce forage productivity.  Timely identification and control of this non-native, invasive Federal Noxious Weed will help prevent its spread.

How do I identify tropical soda apple? There are several species in the nightshade genus (Solanum)

that might be confused with tropical soda apple, but the most common look-a-like is horsenettle (S. carolinense).  Tropical soda apple looks a bit like horsenettle on steroids – the plants are bigger, the leaves are bigger, the thorns are bigger and the fruit is bigger.  Below are key features to help identify tropical soda apple.


  • Form: shallow rooted, spreading, thorny perennial shrub from 3 to 6 feet tall.

  • Leaves: 4 to 6 inches long and 2 to 6 inches wide, shallowly lobed with dense, sticky pubescence (velvety hair) on both sides, large prickles (1/2 to 1 inch) occur along the mid-veins.  Horsenettle leaves tend to be more narrow and the prickles are much smaller and only on veins on the bottom surface of the leaves.
  • Flowers:  May to August. Clusters of flowers with five white petals that are straight when first opened then curve back towards the stem, center is yellowish (Figure 1). The petals of horsenettle are fused and range from white to lavender.
  • figure2.tiffFruit: June to November.  Round (1-1.5 inches), smooth, mottled white and green (like watermelon rind) when immature (Figure 2), turning yellow when ripe. Occur in the leaf axils. Calyx (green leafy material at the top of the fruit where it attaches to the stem) covers very little of the fruit.  Horsenettle fruit is smaller (~0.5 inches) and the calyx reaches nearly a third of the way down the side of the fruit. 

  • figure3.tiffWhere does it grow?  Tropical soda apple is most commonly found in pastures, but is also found in open woods and other semi-shady areas.  It has been reported in scattered locations across the state and the southeast (Figure 3).  Reporting new locations of tropical soda apple will be very helpful in determining how rapidly it is spreading.  Reports can be made using the Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System (http://eddmaps.org) or the free SEEDN app (https://apps.bugwood.org/apps/seedn/) which makes reporting from the field a snap.  Reports can be marked private and will not be visible to the general public.
How is tropical soda apple spread?  Tropical soda apple fruit each contains several hundred seeds. The fruit is quite attractive to cattle and wildlife, which are the primary means of dispersal. Seed is also spread in contaminated hay, sod, manure and machinery.

How can I control tropical soda apple?   Tropical soda apple is very shallow rooted and small shrubs can be pulled with a sturdy pair of gloves (make sure they can withstand the thorns!).  When hand pulling, try to remove the lateral roots if possible. Cutting and mowing can be used to prevent seed formation, but will not control the plants and should be avoided after the plants have set fruit. 

What herbicides can I use to spray tropical soda apple? The best herbicide options for tropical soda apple in pastures are picloram + fluroxypyr, picloram + 2,4-D or aminopyralid + 2,4-D. In forests, the best options are aminopyralid, triclopyr and glyphosate. All of these herbicides benefit from the addition of a nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v.  Always read and follow the herbicide label. One treatment will not eradicate tropical soda apple and follow-up monitoring and retreatment is critical.  Treatments can be applied anytime during the late spring through early fall.

HerbicideHerbicide Active ingredient(s)Product RateRestricted useRecommended for:
SurmountPicloram + fluroxypyr2 pt/AYesPastures
Grazon P+DPicloram + 2,4-D 2 pt/AYesPastures
GrazonNext HLAminopyralid + 2,4-D1.5 pt/ANoPastures
Milestone VMAminopyralid7 fl oz/A or 0.5% v/vNo Forests*, ROWs
Remedy, Garlon 4Triclopyr ester1 qt/A or 2% v/vNoForests, ROWs
Accord ConcentrateGlyphosate3% v/vNoForests, ROWs

   *See label for specific forest information.

Prepared by: Nancy J. Loewenstein, Extension Specialist, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences and Stephen F. Enloe, former Extension Weed Specalsit, Department of Crop Soil, and Environmental Sciences, Auburn University.

phone.pngThe OSHA-NIOSH Heat Safety Tool is a useful resource for planning outdoor work activities based on how hot it feels throughout the day. Featuring real-time heat index and hourly forecasts, specific to your location, as well as occupational safety and health recommendations from OSHA and NIOSH.

The OSHA-NIOSH Heat Safety Tool features:

  • A visual indicator of the current heat index and associated risk levels specific to your current geographical location
  • Precautionary recommendations specific to heat index-associated risk levels
  • An interactive, hourly forecast of heat index values, risk level, and recommendations for planning outdoor work activities in advance
  • Editable location, temperature, and humidity controls for calculation of variable conditions
  • Signs and symptoms and first aid information for heat-related illnesses

IMG_1395 2.JPGOn May 19-20th, volunteers and supporters of Alabama Water Watch gathered at the Living River Retreat on the Cahaba near Montevallo to recognize this milestone year of AWW. 

Please take a moment to check out some of the highlights from the weekend in our most recent AWWareness Blog Articles. 

Feel free to let us know what you think by leaving comments! 

We are all looking forward to the next 25 years! 

AWW 25th Anniversary Tee-Shirts

If you would like to purchase an AWW 25th Anniversary Tee Shirt, send a check for $20 made out to the AWW Association to the following address:

AWW Association 
P.o. Box 3294
Auburn, AL 36831

Include a note with the quantity and size(s) of the tee shirts you would like, as well as the mailing address where they can be shipped. 

Shirts can be purchased from the AWW Program Office as well. 

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