Commercial Horticulture > Comm Hort Blog

Xentari Pyganic Tank-mix1.jpg

Whether you are a conventional or an organic vegetable producer, an integrated pest management or IPM strategy for the modern farm includes a multi-faceted approach consisting of pest prevention and control strategies that aim at reducing pest populations below threshold levels. Proper pest identification and scouting are critical initial steps that form the basis of a proper IPM practice. Indiscriminate use of conventional or organic insecticides have resulted in many cases of insecticide resistance. Cultural control as well as pest exclusion systems suitable for small and large operations are prevention tactics, while insecticides should always be the last resort. Since many organic insecticides are low-persistence products designed to be environmentally friendly, there are additional benefits to evaluating the synergistic effects of rotations and tank-mixes for controlling insect pests. We encourage producers to do their own on-farm tests to gain experience in using new premix insecticides or rotations according to the insecticide label. Growers should keep good spray records and compare multi-year observations for developing a long-term IPM plan.

 

Organic insecticide tank-mixes:

  • Xentari (Bt-product, Valent USA) and Pyganic (natural pyrethrin, Valent USA) form a great combination for caterpillar control. Xentari (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai)-Pyganic tank-mix improves plants stands and quality of vegetables like tomatoes.
  • Based on past research on cabbages, Dipel (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) can also be tank-mixed safely with pyrethrin for significant caterpillar control. Read the next section on the proper use of surfactants when dealing with waxy-leaf crops.
  • Pyganic and Neem 7-Way (Georgia Organic Solutions) tank-mix can also reduce small caterpillars. This tank-mix can significantly reduce damage to crops like tomatoes close to harvest in low pest-pressure regions.
  • Neem 7-Way and Xentari tank-mix can provide significant protection to tomato fruits without phytotoxic effects. Neem oil applications may also help with low populations of whiteflies and aphids (immature stages).  
  • Effectiveness of tank-mixes or insecticide rotations with Bts is enhanced when applications are made inside high tunnels (protection from rain) or in cooler weather (fall crop production).

 

Few pointers for vegetable growers:

  • Use surfactants on leafy vegetables with a wax layer to increase insecticide retention on or below the leaf surface where insects hide. Some organic surfactants include SKH Sticker, Ag Aide and EcoSpreader (Brandt, Inc.). Check insecticide label before mixing a spreader/sticker for compatibility issues; when in doubt, use the spray mixture in a small area before treating large fields. 
  • Benefits from tank-mixes and rotations may occur after 3 to 4 applications with weekly assessment of pest population levels (need-based applications). Tank-mixes should not be used for pest "prevention" as that may result in the target pest becoming resistant to two products simultaneously and wipe out the natural enemies leading to new pest problems.  
  • Use caution while spraying pyrethrin and spinosad products around beneficial insects. While these products are organic, they are toxic to pollinators. Avoid spraying when winds are high, or when pollinators are active.

 

Sources of organic insecticides:  Always check the insecticide label on the manufacturer's website before purchase. Many single or premix insecticides are available from online retailers that include Arbico Organics, Gardens Alive, Seven Springs Farm, Forestry Distributing, Amazon, and many others. Make sure to check the expiration date on the package and product quality before mixing. Consult product labels for primary tank-mixing instructions. Do not store insecticide mixes in spray tank to prevent corrosion. Wash application equipment thoroughly after use to prevent cross-contamination and accidental crop damage due to misapplication. When in doubt, call the manufacturer and/or the retailer for product details.   

 

Use the New Organic Vegetable IPM Toolkit Slide Chart

A revised Organic Vegetable IPM Toolkit is now available for natural and organic farmers. This rectangular slide chart has sustainable IPM recommendations for over 20 major vegetable insect pest species and is a good starting point for beginning or transitioning growers. For a free copy, please email bugdoctor@auburn.edu, contact a commercial horticulture regional extension agent, or attend a beginning farmer workshop in Alabama. Funding for this IPM toolkit was provided by the USDA SARE, BFRD, and Specialty Crops Block Grant Programs. 

 

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Funding: The research and educational activities were funded by various USDA-NIFA and Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries grant programs. Educational activities are carried out in an unbiased manner to benefit all producers across the state and the southeast.  

 

Ayanava Majumdar,

Extension Entomologist and

SARE Program Coordinator, Auburn University

 

Gary Gray and Sam Boring,

Regional Extension Agents


Xentari-Azera Rotation.jpg

Whether you are a conventional or an organic vegetable producer, an integrated pest management or IPM strategy for the modern farm includes a multi-faceted approach consisting of pest prevention and control strategies that aim at reducing pest populations below threshold levels. Proper pest identification and scouting are critical initial steps that form the basis of a proper IPM practice. Indiscriminate use of conventional or organic insecticides have resulted in many cases of insecticide resistance. Cultural control as well as pest exclusion systems suitable for small and large operations are prevention tactics, while insecticides should always be the last resort. Since many organic insecticides are low-persistence products designed to be environmentally friendly, there are additional benefits to evaluating the synergistic effects of rotations and tank-mixes for controlling insect pests. We encourage producers to do their own on-farm tests to gain experience in using new premix insecticides or rotations according to the insecticide label. Growers should keep good spray records and compare multi-year observations for developing a long-term IPM plan.

 

Organic insecticide rotations with single active ingredient (AI) and premixes:

  • When dealing with some tough insect pests, organic insecticide rotation can be critical compared to repeated applications of a single AI. Proper insecticide rotation can reduce cost by reducing the application frequency of expensive products and target multiple species.
  • Typically, we have seen a good insect control by alternating selective insecticides with a broad-spectrum product. Always check the need for additional spray applications to reduce undesirable environmental effects. Incorporating selective insecticides in a rotation schedule encourages natural enemy populations to rebound after using harsher products. For example, in leafy brassicas, using Bt products first is a good strategy when population pressure is low. Later applications can include pyganic or spinosad based products (e.g., Monterey Garden Insect Spray). Three to four alternating applications can provide significant cabbageworm, looper, and diamondback moth control in open field or high tunnel crops.  
  • If you have yellowmargined leaf beetles on brassicas, then early application of pyrethrin, spinosad or premix products such as Azera (neem + pyrethrins, Valent USA) or Botanigard Maxx (Beauveria bassiana insect pathogenic fungus + pyrethrins, BioWorks) are good options. As caterpillar pressure rises through the season, Bt-based insecticides can be part of the rotation.
  • In tomatoes and other summer crops, Bt-Pyganic or Bt-Azera rotations also improved plant stands compared to the untreated check, indicating successful caterpillar control in the early season that generally resulted in higher crop production levels later.

 

Few pointers for vegetable growers:

  • Use surfactants on leafy vegetables with a wax layer to increase insecticide retention on or below the leaf surface where insects hide. Some organic surfactants include SKH Sticker, Ag Aide and EcoSpreader (Brandt, Inc.). Check insecticide label before mixing a spreader/sticker for compatibility issues; when in doubt, use the spray mixture in a small area before treating large fields. 
  • Benefits from tank-mixes and rotations may occur after 3 to 4 applications with weekly assessment of pest population levels (need-based applications). Tank-mixes should not be used for pest "prevention" as that may result in the target pest becoming resistant to two products simultaneously and wipe out the natural enemies leading to new pest problems.  
  • Use caution while spraying pyrethrin and spinosad products around beneficial insects. While these products are organic, they are toxic to pollinators. Avoid spraying when winds are high, or when pollinators are active.

 

Sources of organic insecticides:  Always check the insecticide label on the manufacturer's website before purchase. Many single or premix insecticides are available from online retailers that include Arbico Organics, Gardens Alive, Seven Springs Farm, Forestry Distributing, Amazon, and many others. Make sure to check the expiration date on the package and product quality before mixing. Consult product labels for primary tank-mixing instructions. Do not store insecticide mixes in spray tank to prevent corrosion. Wash application equipment thoroughly after use to prevent cross-contamination and accidental crop damage due to misapplication. When in doubt, call the manufacturer and/or the retailer for product details.   

 

Use the New Organic Vegetable IPM Toolkit Slide Chart

A revised Organic Vegetable IPM Toolkit is now available for natural and organic farmers. This rectangular slide chart has sustainable IPM recommendations for over 20 major vegetable insect pest species and is a good starting point for beginning or transitioning growers. For a free copy, please email bugdoctor@auburn.edu, contact a commercial horticulture regional extension agent, or attend a beginning farmer workshop in Alabama. Funding for this IPM toolkit was provided by the USDA SARE, BFRD, and Specialty Crops Block Grant Programs. 

 

Was this article useful to you? Send your feedback now – click here or copy link https://auburn.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_39kZ3xAcNGesXwp. Thank you!

Funding: The research and educational activities were funded by various USDA-NIFA and Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries grant programs. Educational activities are carried out in an unbiased manner to benefit all producers across the state and the southeast.  

Ayanava Majumdar,

Extension Entomologist and

SARE Program Coordinator, Auburn University

 

Gary Gray and Sam Boring,

Regional Extension Agents


The Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries is pleased to announce a cost-share program for specialty crop growers to alleviate the cost associated with GAP/GHP certification.

Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Good Handling Practices (GHP) audits are voluntary inspections that evaluate how fruits and vegetables are produced, packed, handled, and stored. The goal is to ensure that food is produced in the safest manner possible to minimize risks of microbial food safety hazards.

The cost-share program will reimburse farmers that have successfully passed a GAP/GHP certification for 75% of the cost up to a maximum of $500 per year. 

"We are always looking for ways to help our state's producers grow and expand," said Commissioner John McMillan. "GAP/GHP certification is required by most schools, grocers, and wholesalers. By providing financial assistance, we are helping our farmers reach those markets."

Funds for this program are provided through the USDA Specialty Crop Block Grant Program. Reimbursements are available on a first-come, first-serve basis until the funds are depleted.

If you are interested in applying for the program or have questions, please visit agi.alabama.gov or contact Don Wambles at 334-240-7247 or don.wambles@agi.alabama.gov

 

Brittany Carter

Marketing and DevelopmentAlabama Dept. of Agriculture & Industries


 

 



The Alabama Cooperative Extension System will be teaching several private pesticide applicator training classes. These classes are designed for the farmers who need to take the private pesticide applicator test in order to purchase restricted use products. However, we will be discussing chemical safety and sprayer calibration at this class, so anyone who sprays pesticides on a large scale will benefit from this training, even if a restricted pesticide license is not needed.

On January 18th the class will be taught at the Coosa County Extension Office [(256) 377-4713], January 24th at the Randolph County Ag Center in Wedowee [(256) 357-2841], January 25th at the Macon County Extension Office [(334) 727-0340], January 29th at the Cleburne County Extension Office [(256) 463-2620], January 30th at the Talladega County Extension Office [(256) 362-6187], February 19th at the Lee County Extension Office [(334) 749-3353], February 20th at the Clay County Extension Office [(256) 354-5976], February 27th at the Chambers County EMA Office [(334) 864-9373], September 10th at the Tallapoosa County Extension Office [(256) 825-1050], November 6th at the Calhoun County Extension Office [(256) 237-1621], and December 4th at the Russell County Extension Office [(334) 298-6845].

The Chambers meeting begins at 8:00 and will end around 12 noon (EST). The Russell County meeting begins at 12:30 p.m. and will end around 4:30 p.m. (EST). All of the other classes begin at 8:00 a.m. and will end around 12 noon (CST). If you would like to attend any of these classes, please call the Extension office in the county you would like to attend to make a reservation.  

A fee of $20 will be charged for this training and testing. An additional licensing fee of $25 will be sent to the Department of Agriculture and Industries by the applicant. The licensing fee is not included in the training and testing fee. Please plan to pay with a check (checks are preferred) made out the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES) in the amount of $20 or with the correct cash amount.

Remember to read and follow the label directions before applying pesticides. On our web site, we have information on pesticides that are labeled for certain crops, such as insects, disease, and weed control in turf, ornamentals, vegetables, fruit, forages, and other areas such as insects in wood structures. For people who spray large areas, remember that sprayer calibration is extremely important. Sprayer calibration is the process of figuring out how many gallons of water is being applied to a known area and making needed adjustments so that the correct volume of water is applied. The particular pesticide label will give a range of desired gallons of water per acre that is needed to be applied along with the recommended rate of pesticide. Simple math calculations and a little time are needed to properly calibrate a sprayer. If you need more information on sprayer calibration, just contact your local County Extension Office, or visit our web site at www.aces.edu and type sprayer calibration in the "Search Our Site" box.

 

Chip East

Regional Ext. Agent, Commercial Horticulture



Inspections for the Produce Safety Rule are coming in March of 2019!  Have you had training and are you ready for this inspection?  The Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries is offering free and voluntary On-Farm-Readiness-Reviews to help ensure our Alabama growers are ready for inspection. For more information about the Produce Safety Rule or to sign up for a readiness review, visit the ADAI website or contact Jean Weese at weesesj@auburn.edu or 334-844-3269.

The Food Safety Modernization Act – Produce Safety Rule (FSMA) was signed into law in 2011. It sets new standards for food handling across the entire food chain with rules for businesses ranging from farms and food processors to food shippers, importers, retailers, and others. It is the first federal food safety law that includes specific rules for produce farms.

FSMA represents a change in the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approach to ensuring a safe U.S. food supply. Rather than reacting to instances of food borne illness or contamination, FSMA shifts the focus toward preventing contamination in food. All farms regardless of size, location, or commodity grown, can reduce food safety risk. 

The Alabama Department of Agriculture & Industries (ADAI) is working with FDA through a cooperative agreement to advance efforts for a nationally integrated food safety system.  ADAI will achieve this through the education and outreach, planning and implementing our Produce Safety Program to encourage the safe production of fresh fruits and vegetables.  ADAI will work to promote understanding and compliance with the requirements of FDA's "Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, packing and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption" (commonly referred to as the Produce Safety Rule).

 

Jean Weese,

Professor and Extension Specialist

Associate Director, Food Systems Institute

 

Kristin Woods

Produce Safety Alliance



A Clean Day Program is planned for your area on December 14, 2018.  This program will allow you, at no cost, to bring up to 1,000 pounds of unwanted pesticides for safe and environmentally sound disposal.  Products that will be disposed of include pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, and rodenticides.  If you have products that have lost registration, have illegible labels, are out of date, or any of the mentioned products that you cannot use, you are encouraged to take advantage of this program.  This will allow you to protect your health and the health of your employees as well as protect your property and the environment.

This includes Farmers, Pesticide Applicators, Pesticide Dealers, Pest Control Operators, and Nurseryman. The location is for Baldwin, Clarke, Conecuh, Escambia, Mobile, Monroe, and Washington Counties.

Remember, you will not be charged for disposal of up to 1,000 pounds of material, and there will be no questions asked as to why you have any product.

Funding for this year's event is limited, so registration forms will be considered on a first come-first served basis; first for residents of Baldwin, Clarke, Conecuh, Escambia, Mobile, Monroe, and Washington counties, then for other counties as long as funds are available. 

Please complete the Pesticide Registration Form and return the form to your local County Extension Office or fax it to Daniel (334) 240-7168 if you would like to participate.  Your local County Extension Office or Daniel must have your registration on or before the November 30, 2018 deadline for you to participate in Clean Day.

If you have more than 1,000 pounds of material, please contact Daniel Sheffield for special arrangements.  As a reminder, you will be contacted before the actual collection date with all the details, so it is VERY IMPORTANT that the form is completely filled with and adequate and accurate contact information.  Should you have any questions, please contact your local Extension office or Daniel at (334) 240-7236.

This program is conducted as a service to you and is a joint effort of the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries and the Alabama Cooperative Extension System.

PESTICIDE CLEAN DAY: IMPORTANT   INFORMATION

The maximum amount to be accepted per vehicle will not exceed 1,000 pounds. If you have more than 1,000 pounds of material please contact Daniel Sheffield, Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries, 334-240-7236, to see if special arrangements can be made for disposal of your unwanted pesticide products.

Materials that WILL be accepted include both known and unidentifiable pesticide waste, such as insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and other products such as defoliants, adjuvants and growth retardants.

Products NOT accepted include, but are not limited to the following: explosives or ordinance materials, compressed gas cylinders, petroleum products (motor oil), paints, tires, medical waste, radioactive materials, dioxin precursors or seeds.

Tony L. Cofer

Program Director

Plant and Pesticide Division




Get Ready! The 2018 AFVGA Conference & Trade Show is just around the corner! 

Join us again this November 15 & 16 at the Clanton Conference and Performing Arts Center located at 850 Lay Dam Rd. Clanton, AL, 35045

Registration Information: We are very excited to announce AFVGA is passing on the savings to you! The registration cost to attend has been lowered!

  • Registration for Attendees: Conference & Trade Show will be $85 per person, $65 for spouse/guest and includes a one-year membership to the AFVGA.
  • Registration for Industry: Exhibitors & Vendors has been lowered to $300 per booth with two people attending and includes a one-year membership to the AFVGA. $40 for electricity, $65 for additional persons. Equipment display, and sale of products is allowed at the conference.
  • Registration for Non-profit, Agencies & Universities: Trade Show cost has been lowered to $200 per booth with two people attending and includes a one-year membership to the AFVGA. ($40 for extra electricity), $65 for additional persons.
  • Conference flash drive: $25 (contains presentations and videos that will be mailed after the conference).

More information can be found here.

 



It is that time of year again for football games and cool and crisp air, watching color- changing leaves, smelling aromatic tea-olive flowers and fruits, enjoying pumpkins and harvesting. However, fall is also the time for unwelcome stink bugs invading homes.

Stink bugs are creepy, noisy and notorious for their pungent smell. They enter homes in the fall seeking place to overwinter.

Stink bugs do not bite, do not sting, do NOT pose serious property or safety threats. However, their tendency to enter homes or cover your house in high numbers can be an odoriferous nuisance and disaster. They emit an unpleasant odor that can be hard to get out of your nose, your furniture, your carpet, etc. Crushing the bugs thus becomes a problem, as they emit an unpleasant odor and may stain the surface they are crushed upon.

They enter homes that are not properly sealed. Once inside they will get in the cracks of your house, get in your wall, and anywhere they can hide.

Problematic stink bugs commonly seen in Alabama consist of kudzu bugs and the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB). Other fall invaders that can be stinkers are the Asian lady beetles and boxelder bugs.

Kudzu bugs and the BMSB are both exotic invaders from Asia.

Kudzu bugs adults are 3.5 to 6 mm long, oblong, olive-green colored with brown speckles. Their primary hosts are kudzu vine and soybean crop. They migrate from host plants to overwintering sites in later fall. If you have wild kudzu patches near your property, you are most likely to have this bugs. You may find them resting or even feeding on a verity of landscape and garden plants. This is their effort to get all the nuisance they need preparing for overwinter. They overwinter sites include any crack or crevice where a group of bugs can aggregate. Gaps under the bark of trees, gaps under the siding of homes, high places (such as the fascia boards and gutters on the edges of homes), and leaf litters are only a few examples of overwintering sites.



The brown marmorated stink bugs are 16-18 mm long, shades of brown on both upper and lower body surface, with shield shape like other stink bugs. BMSB are not a picky eater, but suck fluid from a wide variety of host plants, including many tree fruits, vegetable fruits, and crops. If you grow garden plants and fruit trees, you are most likely to have this bugs. Like kudzu bugs, they overwinter under tree barks, sheltered and protected places. Oak and locust trees seem to be their favorite overwintering sites. Photo credit of Brown Marmorated Stinkbug, Home Team Pest.


Advices to keep smelly stink bugs at bay

  1. Seal off any entry points. As for any invaders, stink bugs can only enter your home through entries. Spending time on inspecting the outside of your home for easy access point is a worthy effort of prevention. Pay close attention to areas around siding and utility pipes, underneath the wood fascia or other openings. Caulk and seal any cracks and holes using a good quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk.
  2. Place screening over chimney and attic vents.
  3. Install door sweeps.
  4. Replace and repair damaged screen on window s or doors, as well as torn weather- stripping and loose mortar. Stink bugs can get in home through tiny openings.
  5. Check to make sure soffit, ridge, and gavel vents are property screened.
  6. Stuff steel wool into openings where screening cannot be used, such as around pipe penetrations.
  7. Check for leaking pipes and clogged drains. Reduce moisture sites can help prevent many pest infestations.
  8. Last but not the least: properly manage landscape, leave no harboring sites for stink bugs around your house.


Suggestions for control

  1. Do not touch nor crush but grab them gently with a plastic bag to avoid bad smell
  2. Use a vacuum for their removal. Dispose of the vacuum bag or soak the bag in hot soapy water immediately to prevent odor from permeating the area, as dead stink bugs leave a residue inside the bag that can stink up your home. A stocking or pantyhose placed in the vacuum tube and secured to the end of the tube with a rubber band can help by catching the insects before they reach the motor of the vacuum.
  3. Homeowners may also apply insecticide on the exterior home where the bugs land on seeking entry-points. The insecticides must be labeled for nuisance insect control outdoors.


Xing Ping Hu 

Entomology Professor/Specialist



Extension is hard at work helping communities, agricultural producers and families recover from Hurricane Michael.  Extension professionals will be gathering information from farmers to document crop losses across the state of Alabama. 

Disaster recovery information is now available on a new Extension website, MichaelRecoveryInfo.com.  Information will be available in the categories of agriculture, families and communities. Information partners include FSA, farm organizations and others in the state.  New information will be added daily

Agritourism farms also took a large hit. Hurricane Michael damaged a large number of corn mazes, pumpkin, and sunflower fields which may hurt the number of visitors to those farms.

Extension research plots and local farmers with high tunnel damage are among the victims of this hurricane in the wiregrass area. Just as an example, Hurricane Michael has caused over $2500 in losses to the research high tunnel at the Wiregrass Research & Extension Center after it was rebuilt earlier this year.

If you are one of the vegetable growers affected by the recent hurricane, then please contact Regional Extension Agent Neil Kelly (based in Headland, AL) by calling 334-200-1519 or email ngk0001@aces.edu. Be sure to have information of your crop losses/damage assessments.

Also, USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) State Conservationist for Alabama Ben Malone announced a special financial assistance sign up for Alabama farmers and ranchers who suffered damage to working lands and livestock mortality because of Hurricane Michael. Affected producers are encouraged to sign up for the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). The first batching period will end on October 26, 2018. A second signup period will end on November 9, 2018. Please find more information here.

The Alabama Farmers Federation, stepped forward to establish a special relief fund to help the state's farmers recover from Hurricane Michael's devastating effects.

Donations are tax deductible and may be made at Alabama FarmersFoundation.org or send checks payable to Alabama Farmers Agriculture Foundation to P.O. Box 11000, Montgomery, AL 36191.

 

Ann Chambliss, Program Assistant

Neil Kelly, Regional Extension Agent, Commercial Horticulture Extension Program

Ayanava Majumdar, Commercial Horticulture Extension Program Leader & Extension Entomologist

 

 



​Currently, the production of grape species in the southeastern U.S. is severely limited by Pierce's Disease (PD), caused by the widespread xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. As a result, mainly muscadine cultivars and some American or French-American hybrid bunch grape cultivars with resistance to PD can be successfully cultivated in Alabama due to the high PD pressure. Recent trials in the state have assessed the productivity and fruit quality of ten hybrid bunch grape cultivars, but rootstock cultivar evaluation in our environment has not been studied before. The interest in grape production in Alabama is currently growing and the need to generate knowledge on the effects of selected rootstocks on the overall viticultural performance has become essential. Thus, an experimental vineyard was established in spring of 2014 that consisted of 'Chardonel' and 'Norton' hybrid bunch grape cultivars grafted on selected rootstocks or grown on their own roots. The list of tested rootstocks include 1103 Paulsen (1103P), Kober (5BB), and Teleki (5C). Data was collected to compare vine phenological development, vegetative growth, cropping potential and fruit quality traits.












 Figure 1. 'Chardonel' (A) and 'Norton' (B) bunch grapes grown at the CREC, Clanton.                                                           

Our results indicate that 'Chardonel' grafted on 1103P was highly productive, and is considered the best scion-rootstock combination in terms of cropping potential (Table 1). 'Chardonel' grafted on 1103P vines also produced 22 % larger cluster size that own-rooted 'Chardonel' in 2018. While the 2017-2018 growing season provided the first indications of the impact of rootstock selection on vine productivity and the potential for enhanced viticultural sustainability in Alabama and the southeastern U.S., to ascertain the long term effect of rootstocks on vineyard longevity, productivity, and vigor, further evaluations in Alabama are warranted.



Elina Coneva 

Extension Specialist, ACES


Enfeng Xu, GRA,

Department of Horticulture, Auburn University 



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